In February, the Russian government said that U.S. tests of the Hera missile for the development of the missile defense system had violated the provisions of the INF Treaty. He noted that Moscow had scrapped its SS-23 missile with a similar range to the pressing demand of the United States. The Hera was built with the second and third stages of the Minuteman II rocket (with some modifications) and, according to some sources, lead components of the Pershing rocket, which was eliminated under the INF Treaty. The maximum range of the missile is about 1,000 km. The United States justified its position by calling the Hera missile an “overpressure system” that the parties have the right to manufacture and use (Article VII.12)). December 1990: Bush expands economic aid to the Soviet Union President Bush announced in December 1990 that he would renounce the Jackson-Vanik amendment concerning the Soviet Union for 6 months. It has also provided $1 billion in agricultural loans in response to food shortages. Bush also proposed to apply for observer status for the Soviet Union from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. In June 1991, President Bush extended the waiver of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment by one year. Gorbachev was in the midst of a final push to save the USSR from total collapse and proposed a new Union Treaty to give the republics more independence than being part of a new – and renamed – federation called the Union of Sovereign States. The nation would no longer be socialist or Soviet.
On the 19th. In August, communist extremists responded with an attempted coup when eight officials declared a state of emergency and sent tanks into the streets of Moscow while arresting Gorbachev and other key leaders. It is clear that violence and the threat of violence cannot and must no longer be instruments of foreign policy. The imperative need for the principle of freedom of choice is also clear to us. Cumulative U.S. military spending throughout the Cold War was estimated at $8 trillion. Nearly 100,000 other Americans lost their lives in the Korean and Vietnam Wars.  Although Soviet losses were difficult to estimate, the financial cost to the Soviet Union as a percentage of gross national product was much higher than that of the United States.  On the 15th. In November, ITAR-TASS reported that Russia considered the existence of the Hera ballistic missile target a violation of the INF Treaty. Hera ballistic missile targets using the second and third stages of the Minuteman II ICBMs are used by the United States to simulate enemy ballistic missiles in tests of theater ABM systems such as THAAD and Patriot PAC-3.
The U.S. government considers the Hera to be in compliance with the INF under Article 12 of the treaty, which allows the use of existing missile stages for scientific purposes, while Russia would consider it an IRBM. A separate ITAR-TASS report, released on the same day, also citing “informed sources” in Moscow, claimed that Hera`s alleged use of the Pershing II IRBM guidance systems and White Sands` test field flight tests further confirmed that it was a nuclear-capable mobile IRBM whose existence violates the INF Treaty. The Russian Defense Ministry is reportedly concerned that the Minuteman III modernization programs could significantly improve the Hera`s capabilities and expand its range from the current 1,000 km to 5,000 km through the use of decommissioned Minuteman III stages. The military experts noted that the stationing of such missiles in Europe would require other States to take appropriate countermeasures. According to “informed sources in the structures of the armed forces”, which were published in an article of 24. November 2000 in Nezavisimoye voyennoye obozreniye, Russia could in the near future officially accuse the United States of violating the treaty. The article also speculates that the leaked information on the issue could herald a Russian diplomatic offensive aimed at discouraging the US government from withdrawing from the ABM Treaty.
In early March, Russian media reported that at a meeting in January, Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov asked his US counterpart Donald Rumsfeld for his views on a hypothetical Russian withdrawal from the INF Treaty. July 1992: G-7 Economic Summit President Bush held a private meeting with President Yeltsin after the G-7 Economic Summit in Munich in July 1992. Yeltsin informed the summit attendees that the Russian economy was in a worse state than they could have imagined, but assured them of Russia`s commitment to market reforms. G-7 leaders pledged Russia $1 billion in aid, but linked additional aid to economic reforms. Yeltsin said he would consider debt-for-equity deals with Western creditors and announced that the withdrawal of forces from the former Soviet Union from the Baltic states would begin soon. On November 14, Germany announced that it had rendered the 24 SS-23 missiles supplied by the Soviet Union to the German Democratic Republic (GDR) unusable prior to the signing of the treaty. These missiles had also been delivered to Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria. Since 1990, the United States has insisted that these missiles be eliminated in accordance with the provisions of the treaty, while the Soviet Union has claimed that these missiles are not covered by the treaty. Bulgaria announced that these missiles had improved the country`s defense capabilities. In an annual report to Congress, the United States also mentioned the SS-4 and SS-5 support equipment, which were reportedly not declared by the USSR. In September, the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram, which was sent to the United States by the Soviet ambassador, but commissioned and “co-written” by Vyacheslav Molotov; he portrayed the United States as being under the sway of monopoly capitalists building military capabilities “to prepare the conditions for winning world domination in a new war.”  On September 6, 1946, James F.
Byrnes in Germany gave a speech in which he rejected the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to divide and deindustrialize postwar Germany) and warned the Soviets that the United States intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely.  As Byrnes admitted a month later: “The core of our program was to win over the German people. it was a struggle between the United States and Russia for reflection.  In December, the Soviets agreed to withdraw from Iran after sustained American pressure, an early success of the containment policy. Carter responded to Soviet intervention by withdrawing the SALT II Treaty from ratification, imposing embargoes on grain and technology supplies to the USSR, calling for a significant increase in military spending, and announcing that the United States would boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. He described the Soviet invasion as “the most serious threat to peace since World War II.”  On December 14, the parties signed an amendment to the Memorandum of Understanding to the Treaty Establishing Procedures for The Cessation of On-Site Inspections and Surveillance Activities at the Magna (Utah) and Votkinsk (Udmurtia, Russia) missile production facilities. The agreement provides that the inspection and control regime of the Treaty will expire on 31 May 2001. As part of the consolidation of Stalin`s control over the Eastern bloc, the People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), headed by Lavrentiy Beria, oversaw the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the bloc to crush anti-communist resistance.  When the slightest surge of independence arose in the bloc, Stalin`s strategy was consistent with that of dealing with pre-war national rivals: they were removed from power, tried, imprisoned and, in several cases, executed.
 February 1995: Rendez-vous Mir-Discovery The American space shuttle Discovery made its first flight with the Russian space station Mir in February 1995, paving the way for future plans for space docking. Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista`s overthrow, but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid a meeting with Castro during his trip to Washington, D.C., in April, and let Vice President Richard Nixon hold the meeting in his place.  Cuba began negotiating arms purchases from the Eastern bloc in March 1960.  In March of the same year, Eisenhower approved the CIA`s plans and funding to overthrow Castro.  July 1991: Gorbachev at the G-7 Presidents Bush and Gorbachev met for lunch on the last day of the Economic Summit of the Group of Seven Industrialized Nations in July 1991. They announced the conclusion of a START agreement and planned a summit in Moscow on 30 and 31 July. They also discussed the economic situation in the Soviet Union and the liberalization of the Soviet economy. At the end of World War II, the English writer George Orwell used the Cold War as a general term in his essay “You and the Atomic Bomb”,” published in the British newspaper Tribune on October 19, 1945. Looking at a world that lived in the shadow of the threat of nuclear war, Orwell examined James Burnham`s predictions of a polarized world, writing: One of the most significant examples of the implementation of containment was the U.S.
intervention in the Korean War. In June 1950, after years of mutual hostility,[F] Kim Il-sung`s North Korean People`s Army invaded South Korea at the 38th parallel. Stalin had hesitated to support the invasion[G], but eventually sent advisers.  To Stalin`s surprise, United Nations Security Council Resolutions 82 and 83 supported the defense of South Korea, even though the Soviets boycotted meetings at the time to protest that Taiwan, not the People`s Republic of China, held a permanent seat on the council.  A UN force from sixteen countries faced North Korea, although 40 percent of the troops are South Korean and about 50 percent are from the United States.  Kennedy`s foreign policy was dominated by American confrontations with the Soviet Union, which manifested themselves in proxy competitions. .